Skip to content

Travis Research Institute

Wang Lab
Wang Lab
The Imperfect Culture


Psychology Building 327
Fuller Theological Seminary
180 N. Oakland Ave.
Pasadena, CA 91101-1714




The Imperfect Culture (TIC) Lab focuses on three main areas of research – perfectionism, cross-cultural adjustment, and scale development. Culture intersects across these three topic areas. And our lab embraces the compassion to accept imperfection.



The Imperfect Culture lab’s research team and collaborators have worked on several studies on perfectionism. Projects include examining perfectionism across cultures (e.g., China, Taiwan, Hong Kong, the United States, Russia, India, African American, and Latinx) and expanding the construct to family perfectionism, religious perfectionism, and perceived perfectionism from God. For more information on perfectionism measures, please visit Almost Perfect Scales.

Cross Cultural Adjustment

The lab has completed several longitudinal studies on the adjustment of Chinese international students. Dr. Wang’s team has also created measures to examine cross-cultural loss and international friendliness of college campuses. Currently, the team is studying third-culture kids (TCKs) and hopes to examine missionaries in the near future. For more information on the international friendly campus assessment project, please visit the InFA website.

Scale Development & Psychometrics

The lab has been involved in the development and psychometric evaluations of multiple psychological measures. Most notable are the Family Almost Perfect Scale (FAPS), Cross-Cultural Loss Scale (CCLS), International Friendly Campus Scale (IFCS), Religious Perfectionism Scale (RPS), Perceived Perfectionism from God Scale (PPGS), Religious Discrimination Scale (RDS), Attitudes Towards Religion Scale (ATRS), and Communion with God Scale (CGS).


Wang lab group



Kenneth T. Wang

Professor of Psychology




Abby Young

Abby is a first year PsyD student. She grew up as a missionary kid in Cameroon, Africa. This is where she saw the need for mental health within the missionary community and was what sparked her interest for psychology and missionary care. Abby’s research and clinical interests include missionary care in overseas countries, and family dynamics and mental health.


Allison Adams

Allison is a PsyD student. Her research and clinical interests include working with college students, specifically college-athletes, in a University Counseling Center and utilizing art therapy in order to promote identity formation. Allison is currently working on her dissertation, which creates a group therapy manual focusing on college-athletes and their identity formation.

woman smiling

Anna Shanazari

Anna is a PhD student. For her research is on experiences of pastors’ kids and family perfectionism within a culturally diverse population of adult pastors’ kids. Anna is completing her internship at the Child and Family Development Center at Providence St. John’s Health Center.

woman smiling

Eltice (Ching Ying) Lin

Eltice is a fourth year PhD student. She received her master’s degree in counseling ministries from Trinity International University in Chicago and worked as a counselor in faith-based settings in Taiwan for many years. Eltice is interested in perfectionism in the church and culturally appropriate approaches to psychotherapy.


Grace Chang

Grace is a first-year PsyD student. In her previous career, she taught and counseled diverse groups of students and international students before developing an interest in studying the integration of theology and psychology. Her research and clinical interests include Asian American mental health, cross-cultural adjustments of missionaries, and immigrant parent-child relations.


Helen Jun

Helen is a fourth-year PhD student. She identifies as a 1.5 gen Korean American immigrant, and her research interests include Asian American and Asian international identity, spirituality, and coping. Her clinical interests include complex trauma and racial identity.

woman smiling

Joanna Huang

Joanna is a fourth-year PsyD student. She identifies as a Third Culture Kid (TCK) as she was born in Taipei, Taiwan, and grew up living between Taiwan and the States. Her dissertation topic is on international student adjustment and her clinical interests include neuropsychology and assessment.


Madison DeBruin

Madison is a first-year PhD student. Her research interests involve exploring the intersection between psychology and cultural experience. She is interested in studying perfectionism, moral injury, and how these subjects relate to religion, spirituality, and culture.

woman smiling

Mabel Lo

Mabel is a PsyD student currently on internship. Her passion is in helping people to live fruitful and meaningful lives, and restore broken relationships with oneself, with other people, and with God (for people with faith traditions). Her dissertation is on perfectionism and religious orientation of Christians in Mainland China.


Melanie Ngan

Melanie is a third-year PsyD student. Born in the US but raised in Hong Kong, she is used to bridging and integrating conflicting cultural narratives. She is passionate about the cross-cultural transitions of missionaries, and TCKs, as well as Asian American psychology.

Selected Publications

Jun, H., Wang, K. T., Suh, H. N., & Yeung, J. G. (in press). Family profiles of maladaptive perfectionists among Asian international students. The Counseling Psychologist.

Tan, E. C, Wang, K. T., & Cottrell, A. C. (2021). A Systematic Review of Third Culture Kids Empirical Research. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 82, 81-98.

Wang, K. T., Xie, Z. Y., Parsely, A. C., & Johnson, A. M. (2020). Religious Perfectionism Scale among believers of multiple faiths in China: Development and psychometric analysis. Journal of Religion & Health, 59, 318–333.

Wang, K. T., Wei, M., Zhao, R., Chuang, C. C., & Li, F. (2015). The Cross-Cultural Loss Scale: Development and psychometric evaluation. Psychological Assessment, 27, 42-53.

Wang, K. T., Heppner, P. P., Fu, C. C., Zhao, R., Li, F., & Chuang, C. C. (2012). Profiles of acculturative adjustment patterns among Chinese international students. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 59, 424-436.

Wang, K. T. (2010). The Family Almost Perfect Scale: Development, psychometric properties, and comparing Asian and European Americans. Asian American Journal of Psychology1, 186-199.

Travis Research Institute logo
Contact Us

Jim Cummings, MDiv, MA
Research Administrator

Office Hours

8 am–5 pm


Room 326
180 N. Oakland Ave

Pasadena, CA 91182