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Travis Research Institute

Wang Lab
Wang Lab
The Imperfect Culture


Psychology Building 143
Fuller Theological Seminary
180 N. Oakland Ave.
Pasadena, CA 91101-1714




The Imperfect Culture (TIC) Lab focuses on three main areas of research – perfectionism, cross-cultural adjustment, and scale development. Culture intersects across these three topic areas. And our lab embraces the compassion to accept imperfection.



The Imperfect Culture lab’s research team and collaborators have worked on several studies on perfectionism. Projects include examining perfectionism across cultures (e.g., China, Taiwan, Hong Kong, the United States, Russia, India, African American, and Latinx) and expanding the construct to family perfectionism, religious perfectionism, and perceived perfectionism from God. For more information on perfectionism measures, please visit Almost Perfect Scales.

Cross Cultural Adjustment

The lab has completed several longitudinal studies on the adjustment of Chinese international students. Dr. Wang’s team has also created measures to examine cross-cultural loss and international friendliness of college campuses. Currently, the team is studying third-culture kids (TCKs) and hopes to examine missionaries in the near future. For more information on the international friendly campus assessment project, please visit the InFA website.

Scale Development & Psychometrics

The lab has been involved in the development and psychometric evaluations of multiple psychological measures. Most notable are the Family Almost Perfect Scale (FAPS), Cross-Cultural Loss Scale (CCLS), International Friendly Campus Scale (IFCS), Religious Perfectionism Scale (RPS), Perceived Perfectionism from God Scale (PPGS), Religious Discrimination Scale (RDS), Attitudes Towards Religion Scale (ATRS), and Communion with God Scale (CGS).


Kenneth Wang lab Kintsugi



Kenneth T. Wang

Professor of Psychology


Helen Jun

Helen is a PhD student on internship. She identifies as a 1.5 gen Korean American immigrant, and her research interests include Asian American and Asian international identity, racial trauma, and coping. Her clinical interests include complex trauma, racial trauma, and religious trauma. (Publications: 1, 2, 3)


Eltice (Ching Ying) Lin

Eltice is a PhD student on internship. She received her MA in counseling ministries from Trinity International University in Chicago and worked as a counselor in faith-based settings in Taiwan for many years. Eltice is interested in learning more about religious perfectionism and culturally appropriate approaches to psychotherapy. (Publications:1, 2)

Miriam Kang

Miriam Kang

Miriam is a fifth-year PhD student. Her research and clinical interests include trauma, moral injury, and attachment with a focus on culture, and her dissertation will focus on these aspects in a Korean-American context. She enjoys providing therapy and neuropsychological assessments in culturally diverse populations. (Publications: 1)


Melanie Ngan

Melanie is a fifth-year PsyD student. Born in the US but raised in Hong Kong, she is used to bridging and integrating conflicting cultural narratives. She is passionate about the cross-cultural transitions of missionaries, TCKs, and Asian American psychology.


Grace Chang

Grace is a third-year PsyD student. In her previous career, she taught and counseled diverse groups of students and international students before developing an interest in studying the integration of theology and psychology. Her research and clinical interests include Asian American mental health, cross-cultural adjustment of missionaries, and immigrant parent-child relations.

Alex Liu

Hengzhi Alex Liu

Alex is a third-year PhD student from Nanjing, China. He came to the States in high school. Alex is passionate about studying multicultural psychology, cross-cultural adjustment, and international students. He is also interested in mental health in China and Asian communities in the U.S. He is particularly interested in psychodynamic therapy and hopes to practice therapy in both mandarin and English. 


Ivana Budilo

Ivana is a second-year PhD student. Her research interests lie in cross-cultural issues and how they relate to various health outcomes—as well as considering these relationships through advanced statistical modeling. Her clinical interests are in working with children and adults who experience adversity or adjustment difficulty due to a breadth of sociocultural factors.

CHristy Lee

Christy J. Lee

Christy is a second-year PsyD student. She spent most of her life in California as a 1.5 generation Korean American. Her research and clinical interests include perfectionism, attachment, intra- and interpersonal trust, formation of cultural identity, complex trauma, and integration of psychology and theology.

Mudi Lee

Mudi Li

Mudi is a second-year PsyD student. She was born and raised in northern China for 18 years. She then came to the States for education. Mudi is interested in cross-cultural studies because of her experiences. Family therapy and perfectionism also fascinate her. Mudi’s passion is to have sincere communication in a safe place for people to be who they were created to be.


Philip Taylor

Philip is a first-year PsyD student, raised in the Bay Area of California. He received his BS in Psychology from Calvin University in 2023. His research and focus include grief and resilience, third culture kids (TCKs) and clinical assessment. He is interested in Cognitive Behavioral studies and hopes to practice therapy.

Recent Graduates


Erika Steinwand, PhD [2019]

Gabriel Qi

Wei (Gabriel) Qi, PhD [2020]

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Yasha P. Shine, PsyD [2020]


Denette King, PhD [2021]

Esther Tan

Esther C. Tan, PhD [2021]


Kimberly (Griswold) Tejada, PhD [2021]

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Mabel Lo, PSYD [2022]

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Anna Shanazari, PHD [2022]

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Allie Adams, PsyD [2023]

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Joanna Huang, PsyD [2023]

Selected Publications

Knabb, J. J., Wang, K. T., Hall, M. E. L., & Vazquez, V. E. (2022). The Christian Worldview Scale: An emic measure for assessing a comprehensive view of life within the Christian tradition. Spirituality in Clinical Practice. Advance online publication.

Jun, H., Wang, K. T., Suh, H. N., & Yeung, J. G. (2022). Family profiles of maladaptive perfectionists among Asian international students. The Counseling Psychologist, 50(5), 649–673.

Wang, K. T., Kang, M. S., Lee, H.-C., & Sipan, I. (2021). The Religious Perfectionism Scale: A cross-cultural psychometric evaluation among Christians in the United States. Journal of Psychology and Theology51(2), 251-262.

Tan, E. C, Wang, K. T., & Cottrell, A. C. (2021). A Systematic Review of Third Culture Kids Empirical Research. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 82, 81-98.

Wang, K. T., Xie, Z. Y., Parsely, A. C., & Johnson, A. M. (2020). Religious Perfectionism Scale among believers of multiple faiths in China: Development and psychometric analysis. Journal of Religion & Health, 59, 318–333.

Wang, K. T., Wei, M., Zhao, R., Chuang, C. C., & Li, F. (2015). The Cross-Cultural Loss Scale: Development and psychometric evaluation. Psychological Assessment, 27, 42-53.

Wang, K. T., Heppner, P. P., Fu, C. C., Zhao, R., Li, F., & Chuang, C. C. (2012). Profiles of acculturative adjustment patterns among Chinese international students. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 59, 424-436.

Wang, K. T. (2010). The Family Almost Perfect Scale: Development, psychometric properties, and comparing Asian and European Americans. Asian American Journal of Psychology1, 186-199.

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Contact Us

Jim Cummings, MDiv, MA
Research Administrator

Office Hours

8 am–5 pm


Room 326
180 N. Oakland Ave

Pasadena, CA 91182