Travis Research Institute
Psychology Building 316
Fuller Theological Seminary
180 N. Oakland Ave.
Pasadena, CA 91101-1714
Richard Lerner, Elizabeth Dowling, Jonathan Tirrell, Tufts University
Jacqueline Lerner, Boston College
Alistair Sim, Guillermo Iraheta, Patience Kibbedi, Compassion International
The Thrive Lab endeavors to understand the nature of human thriving and the personal strengths and environments that promote thriving among diverse persons. In particular, our empirical research focuses on spirituality, religion, virtue development, and purpose. Our interdisciplinary scholarship integrates philosophical, theological, and psychological perspectives to further understand thriving and spirituality.
Compassion International Study of Positive Youth Development
Research Team: Dr. Pam King, Dr. Susan Mangan, Dr. Stephanie Trudeau, Jennifer Vaughn*, Sean Noe*, and Casey Taylor*
External Collaborators: Drs. Richard Lerner (Principal Investigator, Tufts University), Jacqueline Lerner (Boston College), Alistair Sim (Compassion International), Elizabeth Dowling (Tufts University), and Jonathan Tirrell (Tufts University)
The CI Study of PYD is a collaborative, multi-nation, comparative longitudinal study of positive youth development among youth in poverty. Drawing on the expertise of the research team, the project draws on cutting edge, theoretically predicated research. Using a mixed methods design , this research examines the relationships between youth strengths and ecological assets to gain an understanding of how youth can thrive and become fulfilled and responsible adults in their communities. Based on the Lerner and Lerner PYD Model, the study considers youth spirituality, hope, internal self-regulation, the 5 C’s of PYD (connection, caring, confidence, competence, and character), and contribution. In addition, contextual resources are assessed through safety, activity participation, religious involvement, and the Big 3 of Youth Development Programs (e.g., caring adult relationships, the development of life skills, and opportunities for leadership). Currently, in the context of faith-based CI youth development programs in El Salvador and Rwanda, the research team compares the development of participants in the CI program to youth who are not participating in CI’s programs to identify what works, with what children, in what context, over what time period.
The study is one of the first longitudinal studies on youth development that does not focus on a deficit or epidemiological model, but is based on the optimistic notions of human plasticity, youth agency, and optimizing the fit between a young person and their context so they can thrive and become citizens who contribute to the world around them. The PYD framework not only emphasizes what can go right with young people, but also considers the role of religion and spirituality as important motivational and moral resources accessible to many youth in international settings that promote prosocial and civic engagement. Results from this study will be used to enhance the work of CI and improve the global child-sponsorship sector through never-before available theory-predicated developmental data.
Shades of Gratitude: Exploring Divine, Cosmic, and Personal Sources of Gratitude
Research Team: Drs. Pam King (Principal Investigator), Dr. Stephanie Trudeau, Dr. Susan Mangan, Dr. Sung Kim, and Rebecca Baer*
Research demonstrates that gratitude has a great effect on our emotional and social well-being. However, until now, gratitude has been studied as an interpersonal construct—meaning researchers conceptualize and measure gratitude based on one person’s experience of gratitude for a gift or benefit originating from another person (e.g., I’m grateful to my parents for their kindness). But what about gratitude to God or other cosmic sources? We aim to investigate and test the role of transcendent beliefs, meanings, and the potential psychological tendencies involved in experiencing gratitude to God and other “cosmic” sources of gratitude. Through a mixed-methods design, we are exploring the role of beliefs about transcendence and individual psychological differences to gain insight into people’s experience, understanding, and practice of gratitude to God.
Spiritual Exemplars Follow-Up: The Emerging Adult Years
Research Team: Drs. Pam King (Principal Investigator) and Fred Defoy*
Exemplarity research allows for the exploration of less understood psychological phenomena (Bronk, King & Matsuba, 2013), which in the case of this study is understanding the nature and structure of spirituality from psychological perspectives. The current project is a follow up to a qualitative study on adolescent spiritual exemplars (King, Abo-Zena & Weber, 2017; King, Clardy & Ramos, 2014), which has revealed the importance of transcendence, fidelity, and contribution as part of central to the spirituality of diverse youth nominated for living with profound spirituality in their culture. Twelve years later, interviews of five of the original participants explore the nature and function of spiritual development in their lives as emerging adults.
Study of Spirituality in America: Structural Topic Modeling
Research Team: Drs. Sung Kim (Principal Investigator), Pam King, and Stephanie Trudeau
Applying cutting edge structural modeling analysis to the rich qualitative data garnered by the Fetzer Institute’s Study of Spirituality in America, the research team seeks to understand a more nuanced and updated understanding of spirituality inside and outside of conventional religious traditions. Building on our expertise, the study applies the research team’s background in spiritual and religious development, civic engagement, thriving, meaning-making, spiritual coping, and structural topic modeling for further analyses of the interviews and focus groups in order to present findings at academic conferences, publish the study in top tier academic journals (i.e., Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, Psychology of Religion and Spirituality), and to produce blogs and digital resources for distribution through the Thrive Center and FULLER Studio (see An Invitation to Thrive and Pamela Ebstyne King on Thriving on FULLER Studio).
Measuring Spirituality Among Adolescents and Emerging Adults
Research Team: Dr. Pam King, Dr. Susan Mangan, and Abbey Craigg*
From a relational developmental systems meta-theoretical perspective, human development occurs through the ongoing interactions between a person and the many different environments or systems in which they live. Spiritual development is no exception.
The Measure of Diverse Adolescent Spirituality (MDAS) Scale was developed in order to measure a young person’s experience of their understanding of transcendence and their response attitudinal and behavioral response to it. From this perspective, spirituality is not just a feeling or experience of something beyond the self, but spirituality involves one’s process of making meaning, informing one’s sense of self and their worldviews, and motivates actions and behaviors that are aligned with their spiritual ideals (King et al., 2019).
Specifically, the MDAS is comprised of three subscales, including Transcendence, Fidelity, and Action. Although the MDAS was developed as a multidimensional measure of adolescent spirituality for use with diverse youth, including those who self-identify as spiritual outside of a religious tradition, it has been used mostly in Christian populations in the U.S., Mexico, El Salvador, and Rwanda (see King et al., 2017; King et al., 2019; King et al., 2020).
While there are many different measures that examine spirituality, the MDAS is particularly well-suited to assess spirituality in an emerging population because of the developmental tasks that emerging adults engage in. In a previous study, we found that a highly religious emerging adult population endorsed themes of Transcendence– Sacred, Transcendence– Other, Self-Awareness and Contribution (Craigg, 2019). In this current study, we will test the psychological viability of the MDAS in a diverse emerging adult population.
For any questions regarding the items and modification process for contextualizing the MDAS for culturally and spiritually diverse samples, please contact Dr. King at firstname.lastname@example.org.
JoyRide: Exploring the Nature and Function of Joy
Research Team: Drs. Pam King (Principal Investigator) and Fred Defoy*
This project seeks to integrate the theological and psychological perspectives of joy and flourishing. Our aim is to provide information on the nature of joy and thriving and how to nurture joy in our lives, answering the following questions:
What is joy?
What is flourishing and thriving?
How are joy and thriving related?
How does joy develop in people, specifically youth?
What kinds of contexts, communities, relationships, and practices are conducive to promoting joy and thriving?
What are the implications for congregations, families, and other youth-related organizations?
We address the aspirational topics of joy and thriving in a manner that is not just informational, but inspirational, serving as an invitation to others to pursue a life of thriving and joy for themselves and the young people in their lives.
The Telos Project
Research Team: Drs. Pam King (Principal Investigator) and Rodrigo Riveros Miranda
Given the radical and frantic change throughout society, the Telos Project seeks to convene interdisciplinary scholars and to synthesize existing scholarship to further understand the ends of human development and thriving. Drawing on psychological science, philosophical, and theological perspectives, teleology provides a framework for human thriving pointing to the importance of the development of differentiated individuals in reciprocating relationships with others, and evolving moral and spiritual aspirations that contribute to flourishing society.
Recent Publications (* = students)
King, P. E. & Defoy, F.* (2020). Joy as a Virtue: The means and ends of joy. Journal of Psychology and Theology.
King, P. E., Schnitker, S. A., & Houltberg, B. (2020). Religious groups and institutions as a context for moral development: Religion as fertile ground. Handbook of Moral Development (ed. L. Jensen). New York: Oxford University Press.
King, P. E. (2020). Joy Distinguished: Teleological Perspectives of Joy as a Virtue. Journal of Positive Psychology, 15:1, 33-39, DOI: 10.1080/17439760.2019.1685578
Kim, S.-H., Lee, N., & King, P. E. (2020). Dimensions of religion and spirituality: A longitudinal topic modeling approach. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 59, p. 62-83.
King, P. E., Vaughn, J. M.*, & Merola, C.* (2020). Spirituality and adolescent development. In D. T. L. Shek & J. Leung (Eds.) Volume VII: History, Theory, and Culture. In S. Hupp & J. Jewell (Eds. in chief). Encyclopedia of Child and Adolescent Development. Wiley Blackwell.
King, P. E., Yoo, Y., Vaugh, J. M.*, Tirrell, J. M., Dowling, E., Geldhof, G. J., Iraheta, G., Williams, K., Sim, A., Lerner, R. M., & Lerner, J. V. (2020). Exploring religiousness and hope: Examining the roles of spirituality and social connections among Salvadoran youth. Religions.
Wang, D. C., Reed, A., Greggo, S., Bowersox, L., Drennan, A., Strawn, B., King, P. E., Porter, S., & Hill, P. (2020). "How do seminaries participate in the spiritual/character formation of students? Four perspectives from North American institutions.” Journal of Religious Education.
Hardy, S. A., & King, P. E. (2019). Processes of religious and spiritual influence in adolescence: Introduction to a special section. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 29(2), 244-253.
Schnitker, S. A., King, P. E., & Houltberg, B. (2019). Religion, Spirituality, and Thriving: Transcendent Narrative, Virtue, and Lived Purpose. In Hardy, S. & King, P. E. (eds.). Special section: Processes of religious and spiritual influence in adolescence, Journal of Research on Adolescence, 29(2), 276-290.
King, P. E., Yoo, Y., Vaugh, J. M.*, Tirrell, J. M., Geldhof, G. J., Iraheta, G., Williams, K., Sim, A., Stephenson, P., Dowling, E., Lerner, R. M., & Lerner, J. V. (2019). Refining the Measure of Diverse Adolescent Spirituality in samples of Mexican and El Salvadoran youth. Psychology of Religion and Spirituality.
Tirell, J.M., Dowling, E.M., Gansert, P., Buckingham, M., Wong, C.A., Suzuki, S., Naliaka, C. Kibbedi, P., Namurinda, E., Williams, K., Geldhof, G.J., Lerner, J.V., King, P.E., Sim, A., & Lerner, R.M. (2019). Toward a measure for assessing features of effective youth development programs: Contextual safety and the "big three" components of positive youth development programs in Rwanda. Child & Youth Care Forum, 48(5), 1-22.
Tirrell, J. M., Gansert, P. K., Geldhof, G. J., Dowling, E. M., Lerner, J. V., King, P. E., Sim, A. T. R., Iraheta, G., Williams, K., & Lerner, R. M. (2019). Using the specificity principle to go inside the black box of programs: The sample case of an El Salvador PYD program. In S. Verma, A. Petersen, & J. Lansford (Eds.), Sustainable human development: Challenges and solutions for implementing the United Nations’ Goals [Special issue]: Zeitschrift für Psychologie.
Lerner, R. M., Tirrell, J. M., Lerner, J. V., Geldhof, G. J., Gestsdottir, S., King, P. E., Sim, A. T. R., & Dowling, E. (2018). The end of the beginning: Evidence and absences studying PYD in a global context. Adolescent Research Review, 4(1), 1-14.
Lerner, R. M., Lerner, J. L., Geldhof, G. J., Gestsdottir, S., King, P. E., Sim, A. T. S., Batanova, M., Tirrell, J. and Dowling, E. (2018). Lansford, J., and Banati, P. (Eds.). Studying positive youth development in different nations: Theoretical and methodological considerations. Handbook of Adolescent Development Research and Its Impact on Global Policy. New York: Oxford University Press.
Faculty and Principal investigator
Abbey is a seventh-year Ph.D. student in Fuller’s Clinical Psychology program. She holds a Master of Arts in Psychology from Fuller Graduate School of Psychology. In her clinical work, she is passionate about helping children overcome obstacles to become thriving young people. She has also worked with young and emerging adults as a Resident Director at Mount Vernon Nazarene University and as a Student Chaplain at Fuller Theological Seminary. Her research interests include spirituality, identity, and purpose among emerging adults. Her recent and current work involves validating the use of the Measure of Diverse Adolescent Spirituality in emerging adult populations.
Casey Taylor is a sixth year doctoral candidate at Fuller’s School of Psychology. Her interest in adolescent development and thriving began during her undergraduate studies. As a member of the Thrive Lab, she has had the opportunity to further study adolescent thriving and the importance of caring adult relationships as developmental assets. Inspired by the catalytic potential of caring adult relationships in the lives of youth, Casey has continued to pursue her interest by pursuing her dissertation focusing on caring adult relationships in thriving youth, who have faced great adversity and live in diverse contexts. Her current research aligns with her clinical passion, and she aims to work with youth and families affected by trauma.
Sean is a second year PhD student in Fuller's Clinical Psychology program. He completed his bachelor’s in psychology at Point Loma Nazarene University. He also has experience as an educator and tutor, working with middle school and high school students in San Diego, California. As a Thrive Scholars Fellow at the Thrive Center for Human Development, his research interests are examining how aspects of religiosity and spiritual experience relate to youth and adolescent development. Sean has a particular interest in understanding religious experience and how this can help youth and adolescents develop and thrive.
Jennifer Medina Vaughn
Jennifer is a doctoral candidate in Psychological Science at Fuller Graduate School of Psychology. She is a bilingual and bicultural licensed Marriage and Family Therapist with special interest in high-risk children and adolescents. As a doctoral student and Thrive Scholars Fellow at the Thrive Center for Human Development, her research has focused on the impact of spirituality and hope on adolescents exposed to poverty and violence in El Salvador and Rwanda. Jennifer is a recent recipient of the Student and Early Career Committee (SECC) of the Society for Research in Child Development dissertation research funding award. Her dissertation project examines the mechanisms through which neighborhood socioeconomic status impacts young children of immigrants’ psychosocial well-being.
Rebecca is a first-year student researcher at the Thrive Center for Human Development currently examining the overlap between joy and gratitude as part of the Shades of Gratitude Project. She has been accepted to the PhD in Clinical Psychology and will start classes in Fall 2021. She holds a Masters in Systemic Counseling from the Internationale Hochschule Liebenzell in Germany and is currently employed there as a counselor. Her experience working with a large variety of demographics and cultures, from German University students to refugees from countries such as Syria and Afghanistan, has shaped her desire to explore how joy, purpose, and gratitude can contribute to a thriving life no matter the background.
Dr. Susan Mangan
Dr. Susan Mangan is a Postdoctoral Research Associate with the Thrive Center. As a positive developmental psychologist, Dr. Mangan is interested in how we, as individuals and as a society, can lead happier, more fulfilling lives. At the Thrive Center, Dr. Mangan is focusing her research efforts on positive youth development, gratitude, and joy. She will be the co-Investigator for the Thrive Center's Shades of Gratitude Project.
As a scholar more broadly, Dr. Mangan's research focuses on positive psychology interventions, well-being, psychological need satisfaction, and emerging adulthood. She also has a strong background in evaluation, statistics, and community program development. Dr. Mangan has contributed numerous research-based blog posts at the Thrive Center.
Dr. Stephanie Trudeau
Dr. Stephanie Trudeau is a Postdoctoral Research Associate with the Thrive Center. Trained as a Medical Family Therapist and a Family Social Scientist from the University of Minnesota, her academic and clinical expertise utilizes a biopsychosocial-spiritual and systemic lens in order to examine illness and recovery across family and social systems. She has dedicated her scholarly and clinical career toward developing a deeper understanding of how families cope in the face of adversity, trauma, and grief.
Her research and clinical interests include families and chronic illness, the integration of behavioral health into primary and tertiary care settings, program development and evaluation, interdisciplinary team dynamics, burnout prevention and recovery and the function spirituality has as a coping and meaning-making mechanism.
At the Thrive Center, Dr. Trudeau is focusing her research efforts on the intersection of thriving and spirituality, beliefs, meaning making, gratitude, and family systems level thriving. She will be a Co-Investigator for the Thrive Center's Shades of Gratitude Project, as well as a Co-Investigator on a sub-study following Fetzer’s Study of Spirituality in America.